Phylloxera and Grafting
Conséquences on contemporary vineyards
At the end of the 19th century, the wine world underwent a cataclysm, the "phylloxeric crisis". This euphemism hides in fact a real war with a foreign occupation that has lasted for one hundred and fifty years.
The consequences for viticulture have been dramatic.
Almost all of the European vineyard had to be reconstituted, from vines grafted on American roots, resistant to attacks of the aphid Phylloxera.
France has abandoned its global supremacy and many winemakers have fled to Algeria and South America.
A third of the vineyards have been lost.
The quality vineyards of the mountains have been abandoned.
The villages were deserted by the exodus to the plains, where intensive production, assisted by nitrogen fertilizers, chemistry and mechanization, have definitively revolutionized viticulture.
Viticulture went from intensive to extensive, becoming polluting, industrial and chemical.